According to an Annie Casey Foundation longitudinal study of nearly 4,000 students born between 1979 and 1989 (Double Jeopardy: How Third-Grade Reading Skills and Poverty Influence High School Graduation, April, 2011), poor children experience double jeopardy due to the link between poverty and academic performance.

The rate was highest for poor Black and Hispanic students, at 31 and 33 percent respectively or about eight times the rate for all proficient readers. Parents of these youth may have limited or little education and need access also to literacy opportunities.